Para La Tierra and its interns and volunteers regularly publish scientific papers.
Read them all here.




Smith, P. McMahon, L. (2018) A phenodeviant specimen of the rare moth Catharisa cerina Jordan (Lepidoptera Saturniidae Hemileucinae) with asymmetrical wing venation. Revista Chilena de Entomología (2018) 44 (2): 211-214 (PDF 612Kb)


Smith, P. Ríos, SD. Petko, ON. Smith, R. Atkinson, K. (2017). The hawkmoths (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) of Rancho Laguna Blanca, Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay with documentation of five new country records. Revista del Museo da la Plata 2017, Volumen 2, Número 2: 77-96 (PDF 4.46Mb)


Smith, P. Rios, SD. Petko, ON. Kitching, IJ. (2016). Oxyteninae Jordan, 1924: first confirmed Paraguayan records (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). SHILAP Revta. lepid., 44 (176) Diciembre 2016: 553-556 (PDF 254Kb)


Petko, O. Smith, P. Stange, L. Rios, SD. (2016). New antlion records (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) from Paraguay Insecta Mundi 0487, June 2016 pp. 1-8 (PDF 338Kb)


Rios, SD. Smith, P. Quintana, ER. Chialchia, AOC. Roque, JRC. (2016). Revision preliminar de los saturniidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) del departamento de Neembucu, Republica del Paraguay Boletin del Musoe Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay Vol. 20, nº 1 (Jun. 2016): 5170-06-4100 (PDF 2.9Mb)


Smith, P., Rios Díaz S., Petko, O., Atkinson, K. (2015). The giant butterfly moths (Lepidoptera castniidae) of Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Departmento San Pedro, Paraguay, with a new country record Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), nº 57 (31/12/2015): 304–306. (PDF 3.95Mb)


Rios Díaz S, Smith P, Penco FC, González JM. (2015). Registros recientes de Ceretes marcelserres (Godart, [1824]) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae). Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay 19: 29-34. (PDF 2.17Mb)


Ríos Díaz, S.D, Smith, P. (2013). Cuatro nuevas especies de Saturniidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) para el Paraguay. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay. 17: p86-90. (PDF 432Kb)


Smith, P., Rios, S. D., Atkinson, K., Meikle, O., Casagrande, M. (2013). New Paraguayan Specimens and First Confirmed Phenological Data for Catharisa cerina (Jordan, 1911) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Brazilian Journal of Biosciences, 11(3), 349-351. (PDF 505Kb)


Smith, P., Rios, S. D., Atkinson, K., Meikle, O. H. H., Casagrande, M. M. (2013). Almeidaia aidea Meikle and Casagrande (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): First Record for Paraguay. Entomological News, 123(1), 38-40. (PDF 145Kb)


Gonzalez, J. M., Rios, S. D., Smith, P. (2013). Confirmation of the Presence of Geyeria uruguayana (Burmeister, 1880) in Paraguay, with notes (Lepidoptera: Castniidae). SHILAP Revta. lepid., 41(161), 105-111. (PDF 666Kb)


Rios, S. D., Smith, P. (2012). First Records of Hamadryas laodamia cramer(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Paraguay. Reportes Cientificos de la FACEN,3(1), 71-73. (PDF 544Kb)


Smith, P. (2009). Finding Cath. Southern Lepidopterists' News, 31(1), 23. (PDF 233Kb)



Atkinson, K. Smith, P. Sarvary, J. (2017). New and noteworthy snake species records (Colubridae and Dipsadidae) for the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, eastern Paraguay. Check List 13(1): 2027, 1 January 2017 (PDF 2.36Mb)


Cacciali, P. Scott, NJ. Ortiz, ALA. Fitzgerald, LA. Smith, P. (2016). The Reptiles of Paraguay: Lioterature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist Museum of Southwestern Biology 2016 (PDF 15.7Mb)


Smith, P. Atkinson, K., Brouard, J.P. Pheasey, H. (2016). Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Departmento San Pedro: Paraguay's first important area for the conservation of amphibians and reptiles? Russian Journal of Herpetology Vol. 23, No. 1, 2016, pp. 25–34 (PDF 111Kb)


Brouard, J.P. Manders, R. Smith, P. (2015). Elachistocleis matogrossoCaramaschi 2010, (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) first records for Paraguay Cuad. herpetol. 29 (1): 97-98 (2015) (PDF 421Kb)

Smith, P., Clay, R. (2015). Six new or important departmental herpetological records for Paraguay. Paraquaria Natural 3(1) 20-22, 2015 (PDF 1.88Mb)


Brouard JP, Smith P (2014). Elachistocleis bicolor (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) and Eupemphix nattereri (Amphibia: Anura: Leiuperidae): Morphological abnormalities from Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Paraguay. Herpetologia Brasileira 3: 85-87. (PDF 1.87Mb)


Pheasey H, Smith P, Brouard JP, Atkinson K (2014). Vanzosaura rubricauda(Red-tailed Vanzosaur) bifurcation and trifurcation. Herpetological Review 45: 138-139. (PDF 119Kb)


Smith P (2014). Physalaemus centralis (Central Weeping Frog) Vocalisation and Conservation. Herpetological Bulletin 126: 32-33. (PDF 365Kb)


Atkinson, K., Smith, R., Smith, P. (2014). Epicrates Crassus (Eastern Rainbow Boa). Herpetological Review 45(4), 2014. (PDF 185Kb)


Smith, P. The Threatened, Exploding Frogs of the Paraguayan Dry Chaco. Froglog 22 (3), Number 111 26-28 (July 2014) (PDF 434Kb)


Smith, P., Cacciali, P., Scott, N., Del Castillo, H., Pheasey, H., Atkinson, K. (2014). First record of the globally-threatened Cerrado endemic snake Philodryas livida (Amaral, 1923) (Serpentes, Dipsadidae) from Paraguay, and the importance of the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca to its conservation. Cuad. herpetol 28 (1): 00-00 (PDF 825Kb)


Smith, P., Scott, N., Pheasey, H., Atkinson, K. (2013). Confirmation of the Presence of Philodryas nattereri (Steindachner, 1870), in Paraguay. Herpetozoa, 16(1/2), 91-94. (PDF 230Kb)

Smith, P., Scott, N., Cacciali, P., Atkinson, K. (2013). Rhachidelus brazili(Squamata: Serpentes): First Records from Paraguay and Clarification of the Correct Spelling of the Neneric Name. Salamandra, 49(1), 56-58. (PDF 1.79Mb)


Smith, P., Cacciali, P., Kallberg, A., Atkinson, K., Pheasey, H. (2013). Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes, Lygophis paucidens (Hoge, 1952): First Records for Paraguay. Check List, 9(1), 131-132. (PDF 620Kb)


Smith, P., Cacciali, P., Atkinson, K., Pheasey, H., Motte, M. (2012). New Distributional Records of Amphibians for Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay (Amphibia). Check List, 8(5), 903-907. (PDF 2.45Mb)


Smith, P., Cacciali, P., Atkinson, K., Kallberg, A., Pheasey, H. (2011). Nuevos Registros de Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Sauria) en la Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay y una Clave para las Especies Paraguayas. Notulas Faunisticas, 81, 1-6. (PDF 1.86Mb)



Culot, L et al (2018) A dataset of communities and occurrences of primates in the Atlantic forests of South America. Ecological Society of America website, October 2018. (PDF 3Mb)

Owen, RD. Sánchez, H. Atkinson, K. McMahon, L. Jonsson, CB. New and noteworthy records of rodents (Mammalia, Rodentia, Cricetidae and Echimyidae) from Paraguay. Check List 14 (5): 721–730. (PDF 5Mb)


Pheasey, H. Smith, P. Atkinson, K. (2018) Observations on the diet and behaviour of captive Monodelphis (Mygalodelphys) kunsi Pine, 1975 (Didelphimorphia Didelphidae) from Paraguay. Mammalogy Notes | Notas Mastozoológicas Sociedad Colombiana de Mastozoología Vol. 4 Num. 2| 2018 (PDF 4.6Mb)


Smith, RL, Hayes, SE, Smith, P, Dickens, JK. (2017). Sleeping site preferences in Sapajus cay Illiger 1815 (Primates: Cebidae) in a disturbed fragment of the Upper Parana´ Atlantic Forest, Rancho Laguna Blanca, Eastern Paraguay Primates (2017) DOI 10.1007/s10329-017-0626-7 (PDF 470Kb)


Smith, P, Owen, RD. (2017). Calyptophractus retusus (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) Mammalian Species (2017) 49(947):57–62 (PDF 13Mb)


Smith, RL. (2017). An observation of an unusual human-directed threat display by Sapajus cay Illiger, 1815 (Cebidae: Primates) in a fragment of Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest, eastern Paraguay. Mammalogy Notes, Sociedad Colombiana de Mastozoología Vol. 4 Num. 1 2017 15-16 (PDF 386Kb)


Smith, RL, Payne, CJ. (2017). Consumption of the bark of Albizia niopoides(Mimosaceae) by Sapajus cay Illiger, 1815 (Cebidae: Primates) in the Atlantic Forest fragment of Rancho Laguna Blanca in Eastern Paraguay. Mammalogy Notes, Sociedad Colombiana de Mastozoología Vol. 4 Num. 1 2017 17-20 (PDF 598Kb)


Smith, P. Owen, RD. (2016). Marmosa constantiae (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae). Mammalian Species 48(941):123–129 (2016) (PDF 502Kb)


Smith, RL. (2016). Preliminary observations of complex object manipulation in a wild population of Sapajus cay Illiger 1815 (primates: Cebidae) in a fragment of upper Paraná Atlantic Forest, Rancho Laguna Blanca, eastern Paraguay. acta ethologica 2016 (PDF 613Kb)


Smith, RL. Briggs, ES. (2016). Using camera traps to determine group demography in a Paraguayan population of Sapajus cay Neotropical Primates 22(2), December 2015 pp. 81-88 (PDF 290Kb)


Smith, P., (2015). Un tatu bolita Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest, 1804) con una amputación de la pierna delantera de Paraguay Paraguay Biodiversidad (October 2015) 2(8): 35-38 (PDF 688Kb)


Owen, R.D., Smith, P., López-González, C., Ruíz Díaz, M. 2014. First records of two species of bats (mammalia: Chiroptera: Emballonuridae and Phyllostomidae) from Paraguay. Boletín de la Sociedad Zoológica del Uruguay 23: 67-73. (PDF 157Kb)


Smith, P., Owen, R.D., Del Castillo, H., Ortiz, M.L., Cabrera, A. (2013). Historical and recent records of Greater Grison Galictis vittata in Paraguay, with nomenclatural comments. Small Carnivore Conservation Vol. 49: 43–47, (PDF 1.2Mb)


Smith, P. (2012). Assessing the Assessment: The Relevance of the 2006 Paraguayan Mammal Red List to the Reality of Xenarthra Conservation in 2012. Edentata, 13, 18-28. (PDF 581Kb)


Smith, P., Pheasey, H., Atkinson, K., Ramakers, J., Sarvary, J. (2012). The Didelphimorphia (Didelphidae) of Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay. Acta Zoológica Lilloana, 56(1-2), 141–153. (PDF 1.39Mb)


Smith, P., Pheasey, H., Atkinson, K., Miller, J. (2012). Records of the Phyllostomine Bats Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823) and Lophostoma silvicolum (d´Orbigny, 1836) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) Associated with Human Dwellings in Paraguay. Chiroptera Neotropical, 18(2), 1139-1143. (PDF 177Kb)


Smith, P., Owen, R., Atkinson, K., del Castillo, H., Northcote-Smith, E. (2011). First Records of the Southern Naked-Tailed Armadillo Cabassous unicinctus(Cingulata: Dasypodidae) in Paraguay. Edentata, 12, 53-57. (PDF 1.89Mb)




Smith, P. (2018) Azara’s spinetails (Aves: Furnariidae). The identity of No. 236 Chiclí and No. 237 Cógogo. Bonn zoological Bulletin 67 (2): 171–174 (PDF 295Kb)

Smith, P. (2018) The identity of the mysterious ‘Azara’s Parakeet’ Sittace flaviventris Wagler, 1832. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (2018) 90(3): 2851-2854 (PDF 835Kb)

Lesterhuis, AJ. Clay, RP. Smith, P. (2018) New and noteworthy records of waterbirds from Paraguay. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 26(1): 65–73. (PDF 1.1Mb)


Smith, P. Cacciali, P. Carmagnola, C. A Paraguayan yellow-hooded blackbird (chrysomus icterocephalus) and a Paraguayan blackbird with a yellow hood! Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Parag. Vol. 21, nº 2 (Dic. 2017): 83-86. (PDF 2Mb)


Smith, P. (2017). The identity of Azara's No. 315 “Ibiyau de cola extraña” and No. 316 “Ibiyau anónimo” (Aves: Caprimulgidae) Zootaxa 4337 (4): 595–599. October 2017 (PDF 171Kb)


Smith, P, Rios, SD. (2017). Novel plumage aberrations in Paraguayan non-Passerine Birds, and the definition of a new plumage aberration unique to Psittacidae Biodiversity and Natural History (2017) Vol. 3, No. 1, 24-28 (PDF 1.09Mb)


Smith, P. (2017). Distraction display of the southernmost subspecies of the Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus azarae (Aves: Parulidae) and a need for more detailed documentation of paratreptic behaviours. acta ethol (2017) 20:187–189 (PDF 263Kb)


Bodrati, A, Smith, P, del Castillo, H, Trejo, A. (2017). The Owls of Paraguay (2017) Neotropical Owls, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-57108-9_18 (PDF 693Kb)


Matthews, A, Smith, P. (2017). Breeding observations on Buff-bellied Puffbird Notharchus swainsoni (Piciformes Bucconidae) at Rancho Laguna Blanca, San Pedro Department, Paraguay Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(1): 20–23. March 2017 (PDF 1.9Mb)


Smith, P. (2016). Observations of novel adaptive foraging strategies adopted by Paraguayan birds. Boletin del Musoe Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay Vol. 20, nº 2 (Dec. 2016): 103-108 (PDF 1.95Mb)


Centron, S. Smith, P. del Castillo, H. Clay, RP. Perez, N. (2016). Distribution and status of the Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda (Aves: Galbulidae) in Paraguay. Revista peruana de biología 23(3): 347 - 350 (2016) (PDF 379Kb)


Smith, P. (2016). Black-necked Swan Cygnus melancoryphus: is there any evidence that it ever occurred in Paraguay? Swan News, Issue No.12, September 2016, p17-22 (PDF 204Kb)


Smith, P. (2016). More comments and recommendations on Paraguayan 'hypothetical' species: Rhea pennata (Rheidae), Buteogallus aequinoctialis(Accipitridae), Columbina passerina (Columbidae), Caprimulgus hirundinaceus(Caprimulgidae) and Atlapetes citrinellus (Emberizidae). Boletin del Musoe Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay Vol. 20, nº 1 (Jun. 2016): 5130-05-6(PDF 2.2Mb)


Smith, P. del Castillo, H. Guest, K. (2016). Birds of Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, departamento San Pedro, Paraguay and the imminent threats to their conservation Enero-Julio 2016; 6 (1): 55-67 (PDF 568Kb)


Austin, V. Sarvary, J. Smith, P. (2016). Burrowing Owls Athene cunicularia(Strigidae) respond with increased vigilance to calls of the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Corvidae) in the Paraguayan Cerrado. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 24(1), 1-8 March 2016 (PDF 164Kb)


Smith, P. (2016). Striking plumage anomalies in two Tyrannidae (Passeriformes): Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus and Tropical Pewee Contopus cinereus from Paraguay Ornithologia 9(1):27-29, January 2016. (PDF 781Kb)


Smith, P., Rios Díaz, S., Cibios, A. (2015). Shedding more light on historical hypothetical records of some Paraguayan birds listed by A. de W. Bertoni. Revue suisse de Zoologie (September 2015) 122(2): 407-413 (PDF 202Kb)


Smith, P. (2015). Sympatry of Turquoise-fronted Amazona aestiva, Orange-winged A. amazonica and Yellow-faced Amazons Alipiopsitta xanthops. Cotinga 37 62-63, 2015 (PDF 214Kb)


Smith, P., Derna, R. (2015). On the status of Dusky-legged Guan Penelope obscura Temminick, 1815 (Aves:Cracidae) in Paraguay. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia V55(14) 211-216, 2015 (PDF 3.1Mb)


Smith P, Rios Díaz S. (2015). On supposed Paraguayan specimens of Sicalis columbiana and Saltator maxillosus in the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay reported by Amarilla & Etcheverry (1996) with a discussion on Bertoni´s treatment of Saltator. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay 19: 23-28. (PDF 1.1Mb)


Chialchia, A.O.C., Smith, P. (2014). A notable hybrid woodpecker (Campephilus leucopogon X C. melanoleucus) (Aves: Picidae) from Paraguay. Ornitologia Neotropical 25: 459–464, 2014 (PDF 332Kb)


Smith P. (2014). Natural history observations on the poorly-studied Quebracho Crested-Tinamou Eudromia formosa (Aves, Tinamiformes, Tinamidae). Historia Natural 4: 39-44. (PDF 476Kb)


Hostettler H, Smith P (2014). Long-trained Nightjar (Macropsalis forcipata) (Aves, Caprimulgidae): first Paraguayan record. Brazilian Journal of Ornithology 22: 411-414. (PDF 544Kb)


Smith P (2014). Cory´s Bittern: Morph, mutant or mixed bag? Canadian Field Naturalist 128: 350-357. (PDF 197Kb)


Smith, P. (2014). First description of the nest and eggs of Fawn-breasted Wren Cantorchilus guarayanus. Cotinga 36 71-73 (PDF 393Kb)


Smith, P., Lesterhuis, A.J., Clay, R.P. (2014). Status and distribution of the doraditos (Tyrannidae: Pseudocolopteryx) in Paraguay, including a new country record. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 180-188 June 2014 (PDF 2.4Mb)


Smith, P., Perez, N., Derna, R., Colman, A., Del Castillo, H., Alvarez, A. (2014). On the presence of rusty margined flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis (Tyrannidae) in Paraguay. Alauda 82 (1), 2014 (PDF 4.4Mb)


Smith, P., Cibios, A., Straube, F. (2014). On the Paraguayan specimens of Nothura darwinii (Aves: Tinamidae) and Glaucis hirsutus (Aves: Trochilidae) in the collection of the Natural History Museum of Geneva (Switzerland), with a review of South Brazilian reports of the latter. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 121 (1): 3-9; March 2014 (PDF 5.4Mb)


Smith, P., Rios, S.D. (2014). Comments on supposed occurrence of Andean Avocet and American Oystercatcher in Paraguay. Dutch Birding 36: 26-29 (PDF 128Kb)


Smith P (2013). Photospot: Weird Wings: The enigmatic Eleothreptus nightjars of Paraguay. Neotropical Birding 13: p43-46. (PDF 917Kb)


Pagano, L.G., Smith, P., Bodrati, A. (2013). El Zorzalito Colorado Catharus fuscescens en Argentina y Paraguay. Hornero 28(2):79–83, 2013 (PDF 333Kb)


Smith, P., Derna, R., Wainwright, B., Bromfield, G., Nossent, R., Betuel, A. (2013). Noteworthy Paraguayan Records and Range Extensions of Birds from the City of Encarnación, Departamento Itapúa, Paraguay. Atualidades Ornitológicas, 174, 10-13. (PDF 803Kb)


Smith, P., Fretes, A. (2013). Two Unrelated Species of Birds (Myiopsitta monachus; Psittacidae and Coryphistera alaudina; Furnariidae) Simultaneously Building the Same Nest in the Paraguayan Chaco. Ecología en Bolivia, 48(1), 52-56. (PDF 1.67Mb)


Smith, P., Pearman, M., Betuel, A. (2013). An Unusual Record of Quebracho Crested Tinamou Eudromia formosa from the Dry Chaco of Paraguay, with Comments on Distribution, Breeding and Vocalisations of the Species. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 133, 19-23. (PDF 429Kb)


Smith, P., Onley, D., Northcote-Smith, E., Atkinson, K. (2012). Morphometrics of Cerrado Birds from the Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca (NE Paraguay). The Ring, 34, 51-67. (PDF 130Kb)


Smith P, (2012). An observation of a pair of Aplomado Falcons Falco femoralis(Falconidae) following a bus to flush prey. Kempffiana 8: 22-24. (PDF 133Kb)


Smith, P., del Castillo, H., Clay, R. (2011). Nuevos Registros y Primera Documentacion de Thraupis palmarum en Paraguay. Nuestras Aves, 56, 35-37. (PDF 523Kb)


Smith, P., del Castillo, H., Clay, R. (2006). Common Tern Sterna hirundo: A New Species for Paraguay. Bellbird, 1, 1-2. (PDF 425kb)


Smith, P. (2006). Interspecific Aggression in Nesting Great Kiskadees (Pitangus sulphuratus) in Paraguay. Boletin SAO, XVI(1), 67-70. PDF 368Kb)


Conservation and Cross Cutting